African Urban Resource Typology - 2014 to 2016 - Concluded


People
Paul Currie
Josephine Musango

In Partnership with MIT:
John Fernandez
Phebe Dudek
Ethan Lay-Sleeper
Jenny Kim

Outputs
Constructing an accurate typology of cities based on urban metabolic pathways is a necessary step in creating sustainable urban environments. An accurate typology reveals global resource and consumption patterns and helps motivate structured development and improvement for given urban environments. Understanding how and why cities consume resources is increasingly important as they become home to a larger and larger proportion of the world’s population.

The purpose of this project was to develop a typology for selected African cities. This reflects the nuances of these cities which are lost in comparison to global cities. These cities represent a variety of population densities, climates, geographies, and industrial types and outputs. Through the use of material flow analysis, the resource consumption of these environments is compared.

This project was divided into three phases. The initial stage of the project involved collecting and collating raw data into a form readily applicable to statistical categorization. This included determining n appropriate method for scaling data from national- to city-level. Phase two of the project involved various statistical analysis methods to place the cities into clusters. These methods sought to group cities with similar industrial production, geography, or other variables in order to find the most meaningful factors in determining resource consumption in cities. The optimization, refinement, and presentation of these clusters and typologies comprised the third phase of the project.

The generated typologies will be targeted toward several African and international organizations, including the United Nations and World Bank. These groups will be able to form appropriate development and growth strategies at both the city and national scale based on the classifications created through this typology project. Governments and mayors may want to make use of the data to plan more localized development and sustainability projects, and to understand how their cities will grow and change in the future.


Energy Technology Leapfrogging in African Contexts

People
Benjamin Batinge
Andre Troost
Josephine Musango
Alan Brent

Outputs
Output 1

Output 2
Description to be updated 13/03/2017

MuSIASEM in Informal Settlements

People
Suzanne Smit
Rickus Cronje
Ofolake Makinde
Josephine Musango
Alan Brent

Outputs
Output 1

Output 2
Description to be updated 13/03/2017

Co-designing energy communities with energy poor women in urban areas: case studies in Kenya, Uganda and South Africa

People
Josephine Musango
Jacquie Walubwe
Paul Currie
Alan Brent

In Collaboration With
Lorraine Amolo Ambole, University of Nairobi
Kareem Buyana, Urban Action Lab, Makerere University

Outputs
Energy Metabolism Profile of Nairobi
Energy Metabolism Profile of Kampala
This is a collaborative research project led by three early career researchers, namely, Dr Amollo Ambole, Research Group Leader of Dzyn Re.Group at the University of Nairobi, Kenya; Prof Josephine Kaviti Musango, Research Group Leader of Urban Modelling and Metabolism Assessment uMAMA, Stellenbosch University, South Africa; and Dr Kareem Buyana, Researcher at Urban Action Lab, Makerere University, Uganda.

The recently adopted sustainable development goals (SDGs) emphasise ‘Sustainable cities and communities’ (SDG 11), ‘affordable and clean energy for all’ (SDG 7), ‘healthy lives and wellbeing for all at all ages’ (SDG 3) and ‘gender equality and empowerment of all women and girls’ (SDG 5) (UNDP, 2016). Access to household energy in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is, however, an enduring challenge, with over 50% of people in SSA lacking access to electricity, while 75% depend on biomass for cooking (IEA, 2015). Further, there is sparse knowledge on the interconnections between household energy service provision and health in informal urban settlements, and the gender issues linked to the energy-health nexus in Africa. This limits the possibilities of co-designing gender responsive options that simultaneously improve energy access and health outcomes at household level.

The project goal, therefore, is to produce knowledge on co-designing gender responsive options for improved household energy service provision, and better health outcomes in informal urban settlements. Case studies will include Mathare in Kenya, Kasubi-Kawaala in Uganda and Enkanini in South Africa. These settlements will make it possible for the research team to apply a transdisciplinary approach in collaborating with urban poor women and policy actors at municipal and central government levels, and to obtain a comparative analysis of co-designing gender-equal energy communities in urban informal settlements in an African context.




Differential Urban Metabolism


People
Paul Currie
Josephine Musango

Outputs
Review of Household Metabolism

Methodological Comparissson for examining Household Metabolism

Differential Resource Maps of Cape Town
The nature of cities as concentrators of people, resources and economic opportunity, as well as associated negative socio-economic and environmental impacts, presents an imperative for urban governments to shape their cities in order to maximize economic opportunity and social welfare for its residents, while limiting negative environmental impacts. This is often voiced in aspirations of a ‘sustainable city.’ Urban metabolism provides a unique conceptual approach for understanding urban resource dynamics shaping sustainable infrastructure systems (Brunner 2007; Kennedy et al. 2011).

The scale of analysis for urban metabolism studies is typically presented at aggregate city-level, suggesting that the urban metabolism is homogeneous across populations within a city. However, in reality this is not the case, and it is difficult to prescribe effective pathways towards shaping a sustainable city when different parts of the city have completely different functional dynamics. Currie and Musango (2016) concludes with a call for shifting away from single quantification of entire cities, and highlighting the inequities of resource access, as well as the intensity, form and cost of resource flow in different areas. Establishing a framework to examine metabolism of representative household types across the city would facilitate and inform policy interventions within specific city areas, which contribute to the overall sustainability: this is termed as differential urban metabolism in this project.

The differences in function and form between various areas in cities of the global south are particularly visible as inequality defines and shapes much of the urban landscape and resource flows. Stated political agendas aim either to undo legacies of differential resource provision (via colonial, capitalist or apartheid mechanisms) or to increase standards of living and associated economic participation in under-developed areas through improved resource availability and utilisation. However, the degree to which resources are available, accessible and deliverable is typically not measured. In contexts in which we expect a rapidly growing middle class, and in which upgrading of informal settlements is legally mandated, this project asks what the resource consequences of upgrading all of Cape Town’s informal settlements (an estimated 140 000 households) to a sufficient level of resource consumption which offers quality of life would be on the city’s overall resource demand profile.